Glossary
abhidhamma : the higher teachings of Buddhism, teachings on ultimate realities.
Abhidhammattha Sangaha : an Encyclopedia of the Abhidhamma, written by Anuruddha between the 8th and the 12th century A.D.
abhiññā : supernormal powers.
adosa : non aversion.
ahetuka cittas : not accompanied by “beautiful roots” or unwholesome roots.
ākāsānañcāyatana : sphere of boundless space, the meditation subject of the first immaterial jhānacitta.
akiñcaññāyatana : sphere of nothingness, the meditation subject of the third immaterial jhānacitta.
akusala : unwholesome, unskilful.
alobha : non attachment, generosity.
amoha : wisdom or understanding.
anāgāmī : non-returner, person who has reached the third stage of enlightenment, he has no aversion (dosa).
anattā : not self.
anicca : impermanence.
anuloma : conformity or adaptation.
anusaya : latent tendency or proclivity.
anupādisesa nibbāna : final nibbāna, without the khandhas (aggregates or groups of existence) remaining, at the death of an arahat.
apo-dhātu : element of water or cohesion.
appanā : absorption.
arahat : noble person who has attained the fourth and last stage of enlightenment.
ārammaṇa : object which is known by consciousness.
ariyan : noble person who has attained enlightenment.
arūpa-bhūmi : plane of arūpa jhānacitta.
arūpa-brahma : plane plane of existence attained as a result of arūpa-jhāna. There are no sense impressions, no rūpa experienced in this realm.
arūpa-jhāna : immaterial absorption.
asaṅkhārika : unprompted, not induced, either by oneself or by someone else.
asaṅkhata dhamma : unconditioned reality, nibbāna.
āsavas : influxes or intoxicants, group of defilements .
asobhana : not beautiful, not accompanied by beautiful roots.
asubha : foul.
asura : demon, being of one of the unhappy planes of existence.
atīta-bhavanga : past life-continuum, arising and falling away shortly before the start of a process of cittas experiencing an object through one of the sense-doors.
Atthasālinī : The Expositor, a commentary to the first book of the Abhidhamma Piṭaka.
āvajjana : adverting of consciousness to the object which has impinged on one of the six doors.
avijjā : ignorance.
ayoniso manasikāra : unwise attention to an object.
bhāvanā : mental development, comprising the development of calm and the development of insight.
bhavanga : life-continuum.
bhavanga calana : vibrating bhavanga arising shortly before a process of cittas experiencing an object through one of the six doors.
bhavangupaccheda : arrest bhavanga, last bhavanga-citta before a process of cittas starts.
bhikkhu : monk.
bhikkhunī : nun.
bhūmi : plane of existence or plane of citta.
brahma-vihāras : the four divine abidings, meditation subjects which are: loving kindness, compassion, sympathetic joy, equanimity.
Buddha : a fully enlightened person who has discovered the truth all by himself, without the aid of a teacher and can proclaim Dhamma to the world.
Buddhaghosa : commentator on the Tipiṭaka, author of the Visuddhimagga in 5 A.D.
cakkhu : eye.
cakkhu-dhātu : eye element.
cakkhu-dvāra : eyedoor.
cakkhu-dvārāvajjana-citta : eye-door-adverting-consciousness.
cakkhuppasāda rūpa : rūpa which is the organ of eyesense, capable of receiving visible object.
cakkhu-viññāṇa : seeing-consciousness.
cetanā : volition or intention.
cetasika : mental factor arising with consciousness.
citta : consciousness, the reality which knows or cognizes an object.
cuti-citta : dying-consciousness.
dāna : generosity, giving.
dassana-kicca : function of seeing.
dhamma : reality, truth, the teachings.
dhamma-dhātu : element of dhammas, realities, comprising cetasikas, subtle rūpas, nibbāna.
dhammārammaṇa : all objects other than the sense objects which can be experienced through the five sense-doors, thus, objects which can be experienced only through the mind-door.
Dhammasangaṇi : the first book of the Abhidhamma Piṭaka.
Dhātukathā : Discussion on the Elements, the third book of the Abhidhamma.
diṭṭhi : wrong view, distorted view of realities.
diṭṭhigata sampayutta : accompanied by wrong view.
domanassa : unpleasant feeling.
dosa : aversion or ill will.
dosa-mūla-citta : citta (consciousness) rooted in aversion.
dukkha : suffering, unsatisfactoriness of conditioned realities.
dukkha vedanā : painful feeling or unpleasant feeling.
dvāra : doorway through which an object is experienced, the five sense-doors or the mind door.
dvi-pañca-viññāṇa : the five pairs of sense-cognitions, which are seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting and body-consciousness. Of each pair one is kusala vipāka and one akusala vipāka.
ekaggatā : concentration, one-pointedness, a cetasika which has the function to focus on one object.
ganthas : bonds, a group of defilements.
ghāna-dhātu : nose element.
ghānappasāda rūpa : rūpa which is the organ of smelling sense, capable of receiving odour.
ghāna-viññāṇa : smelling-consciousness.
ghāyana-kicca : function of smelling.
gotrabhū : change of lineage, the last citta of the sense-sphere before jhāna, absorption, is attained, or enlightenment is attained.
hadaya-vatthu : heart-base, rūpa which is the plane of origin of the cittas other than the sense-cognitions.
hasituppāda-citta : smile producing consciousness of an arahat.
hetu : root, which conditions citta to be “beautiful” or unwholesome.
indriya : faculty. Some are rūpas such as the sense organs, some are nāmas such as feeling. Five ’spiritual faculties’ are wholesome faculties which should be cultivated, namely: confidence, energy, awareness, concentration and wisdom.
issā : envy.
jāti : birth, nature, class (of cittas).
javana-citta : cittas which ’run through the object’, kusala citta or akusala citta in the case of non-arahats.
jhāna : absorption which can be attained through the development of calm.
jhāna-factors : cetasikas which have to be cultivated for the attainment of jhāna: vitakka, vicāra, pīti, sukha, samādhi.
jivhā-dhātu : tongue element.
jivhāppasāda rūpa : rūpa which is the organ of tasting sense, capable of receiving flavour.
jivhā-viññāṇa : tasting-consciousness.
kāma : sensual enjoyment or the five sense objects.
kāma-bhūmi : sensuous plane of existence.
kāmacchandha : sensuous desire.
kāma-sobhana cittas : beautiful cittas of the sense sphere.
kāmāvacara cittas : cittas of the sense sphere.
kamma : intention or volition; deed motivated by volition.
kammapatha : course of action performed through body, speech or mind which can be wholesome or unwholesome.
karuṇā : compassion.
kasiṇa : disk, used as an object for the development of calm.
kāya : body. It can also stand for the “mental body”, the cetasikas.
kāya dhātu : the element of bodysense.
kāyappasāda rūpa : bodysense, the rūpa which is capable of receiving tangible object. It is all over the body, inside or outside.
kāya-viññatti : bodily intimation, such as gestures, facial expression, etc.
kāya-viññāṇa : body-consciousness.
khandhas : aggregates of conditioned realities classified as five groups: physical phenomena, feelings, perception or remembrance, activities or formations (cetasikas other than feeling or perception), consciousness.
kicca : function.
kilesa : defilements.
kiriya citta : inoperative citta, neither cause nor result.
kukkucca : regret or worry.
kusala citta : wholesome consciousness.
kusala kamma : a good deed.
kusala : wholesome, skillful.
lobha : attachment, greed.
lobha-mūla-citta : consciousness rooted in attachment.
lokiya citta : citta which is mundane, not experiencing nibbāna.
lokuttara citta : supramundane citta which experiences nibbāna.
lokuttara dhammas : the unconditioned dhamma which is nibbāna and the cittas which experience nibbāna.
macchariya : stinginess.
magga : path (eightfold Path).
magga-citta : path consciousness, supramundane citta which experiences nibbāna and eradicates defilements.
mahā-bhūta-rūpas : the rūpas which are the four great elements of “earth” or solidity, “water ” or cohesion, “fire” or temperature, and “wind” or motion.
mahā-kiriyacitta : inoperative sense-sphere citta of the arahat, accompanied by “beautiful” roots.
mahā-kusala citta : wholesome citta of the sense sphere.
mahā-vipākacitta : citta of the sense sphere which is result, accompanied by “beautiful” roots.
manāyatana : mind-base, including all cittas.
mano : mind, citta, consciousness.
mano-dhātu : mind-element, comprising the five-sense-door adverting- consciousness, and the two types of receiving-consciousness.
mano-dvārāvajjana-citta : mind-door-adverting-consciousness.
mano-dvāra-vīthi-cittas : cittas arising in a mind-door process.
mano-viññāṇa-dhātu : mind-consciousness element, comprising all cittas other than the sense-cognitions (seeing, etc.) and mind-element.
māra : “the evil one”—all that leads to dukkha
mettā : loving kindness.
middha : torpor or languor.
moha : ignorance. moha-mūla-citta citta rooted in ignorance.
muditā : sympathetic joy.
nāma : mental phenomena, including those which are conditioned and also the unconditioned nāma which is nibbāna.
natthika diṭṭhi : wrong view of annihilation, assumption that there is no result of kamma.
n’eva-saññā-n’āsaññāyatana : sphere of neither perception nor non-perception, the meditation subject of the fourth immaterial jhāna.
nibbāna : the unconditioned reality, the reality which does not arise and fall away.The destruction of lust, hatred and delusion. The deathless. The end of suffering.
nimitta : mental image one can acquire of a meditation subject in tranquil meditation.
nirodha-samāpatti : attainment of cessation of consciousness.
nīvaraṇa : hindrances, a group of defilements.
ñāṇa : wisdom, insight.
ojā : the rūpa which is nutrition.
oḷārika rūpas : gross rūpas (sense objects and sense organs).
Pacceka Buddha : Silent Buddha, an enlightened one who has found the truth by himself but does not proclaim Dhamma to the world.
paṭibhāga nimitta : counterpart image, more perfected mental image of a meditation subject, acquired in tranquil meditation.
paṭigha : aversion or ill will.
Paṭṭhāna : Conditional Relations, the seventh book of the Abhidhamma.
paṭisandhi citta : rebirth consciousness.
Pāli : the language of the Buddhist teachings.
pañcadvārāvajjana-citta : five-sense-door-adverting-consciousness.
pañcaviññāṇa : (or dvi-pañcaviññāṇa), the sense cognitions (seeing etc.) of which there are five pairs.
paññā : wisdom or understanding.
paññatti : concepts, conventional terms.
paramattha dhamma : truth in the absolute sense: mental and physical phenomena, each with their own characteristic.
parikamma : preparatory consciousness, the first javana citta arising in the process during which absorption or enlightenment is attained.
pasāda-rūpas : rūpas which are capable of receiving sense-objects such as visible object, sound, taste, etc. peta ghost.
phala-citta : fruition consciousness experiencing nibbāna. It is result of magga- citta, path-consciousness.
phassa : contact.
phoṭṭhabbārammaṇa : tangible object, experienced through bodysense.
phusanakicca : function of experiencing tangible object.
pīti : joy, rapture, enthusiasm.
Puggalapaññatti : Designation of Human Types, the fourth book of the Abhidhamma.
puthujjana : “worldling”, a person who has not attained enlightenment.
Rāhula : the Buddha’s son.
rasārammaṇa : object of flavour.
rūpārammaṇa : visible object.
rūpa : physical phenomena, realities which do not experience anything.
rūpa-brahma : plane rūpa-bhūmi, fine material realm of existence attained as a result of rūpa-jhāna.
rūpa-jhāna : fine material absorption, developed with a meditation subject which is still dependant on materiality.
rūpa-khandha : aggregate or group of all physical phenomena (rūpas).
rūpāvacara cittas : rūpa-jhānacittas, consciousness of the fine-material sphere.
saddārammaṇa : sound.
saddhā : confidence.
sahagata : accompanied by.
sahetuka : accompanied by roots.
sakadāgāmī : once-returner, a noble person who has attained the second stage of enlightenment.
samādhi : concentration or one-pointedness, ekaggatā cetasika.
samatha : the development of calm.
sammā : right.
sampaṭicchana-citta : receiving-consciousness.
sampayutta : associated with.
Sangha : community of monks and nuns. As one of the triple Gems it means the community of those people who have attained enlightenment.
saṅkhāra dhammas : conditioned dhammas that arise together depending on each other.
saṅkhata dhamma : what has arisen because of conditions.
saṅkhāra-kkhandha : all cetasikas (mental factors) except feeling and memory.
saññā : memory, remembrance or “perception”.
saññā-kkhandha : memory classified as one of the five khandhas.
santīraṇa-citta : investigating-consciousness.
Sāriputta : chief disciple of Buddha.
sasaṅkhārika : prompted, induced, instigated, either by oneself or someone else.
sati : mindfulness or awareness: non-forgetfulness of what is wholesome, or non-forgetfulness of realities which appear.
satipaṭṭhāna sutta : Middle Length Sayings 1, number 10, also Dīgha Nikāya, Dialogues, no. 22.
satipaṭṭhāna : applications of mindfulness. It can mean the cetasika sati which is aware of realities or the objects of mindfulness which are classified as four applications of mindfulness: Body, Feeling Citta, Dhamma. Or it can mean the development of direct understanding of realities through awareness.
sa-upadi-sesa nibbāna : the attainment of nibbāna with the khandhas remaining by the arahat, thus not final nibbāna at death of an arahat.
sāyana-kicca : function of tasting.
savana-kicca : function of hearing.
sīla : morality in action or speech, virtue.
sīlabbatupādāna : wrong practice, which is clinging to certain rules (“rites and rituals”) in one’s practice.
sobhana-hetus : beautiful roots.
sobhana kiriya cittas : kiriyacittas accompanied by sobhana (beautiful) roots.
sobhana(citta and cetasika) : beautiful, accompanied by beautiful roots.
somanassa : happy feeling.
sota-dhātu : element of earsense.
sota-dvārāvajjana-citta : ear-door-adverting-consciousness.
sota-dvāra-vīthi-cittas : ear-door process cittas.
sotāpanna : person who has attained the first stage of enlightenment, and who has eradicated wrong view of realities.
sota-viññāṇa : hearing-consciousness.
sukha : happy, pleasant.
sukha-vedanā : pleasant feeling.
sukhuma : subtle.
sutta : part of the scriptures containing dialogues at different places on different occasions.
suttanta : a sutta text.
tadālambana : retention or registering, last citta of a complete process of the sense-sphere.
tadārammaṇa : as above.
Tathāgata : literally “thus gone”, epithet of the Buddha.
tatramajjhattatā : equanimity or evenmindedness.
tejo-dhātu : element of fire or heat.
Theravāda Buddhism : ‘Doctrine of the Elders’, the oldest tradition of Buddhism.
thīna : sloth.
Tipiṭaka : the teachings of the Buddha contained in the Vinaya, the Suttanta and the Abhidhamma.
uddhacca : restlessness.
Udāna : Verses of Uplift from the Minor Anthologies.
upacāra : access or proximity consciousness, the second javana-citta in the process in which absorption or enlightenment is attained.
upacāra-samādhi : access-concentration.
upādā-rūpa : “derived rūpas” the rūpas other than the four Great Elements.
upādāna : clinging.
upādāna-kkhandhas : khandhas of clinging.
upekkhā : indifferent feeling. It can stand for evenmindedness or equanimity and then it is not feeling.
vacīviññatti : the rūpa which is speech intimation.
vatthu : base, physical base of citta.
vāyo-dhātu : element of wind or motion.
vedanā : feeling.
vedanā-kkhandha : group of all feelings.
Vibhaṅga : “Book of Analysis”, second book of the Abhidhamma.
vicāra : sustained thinking or discursive thinking.
vicikicchā : doubt.
vinaya : Book of Discipline for the monks.
viññāṇa : consciousness, citta.
viññāṇa-dhātu : element of consciousness, comprising all cittas.
viññāṇa-kkhandha : group of all cittas (consciousness).
viññāṇañcāyatana : sphere of boundless consciousness, meditation subject for the second stage of immaterial jhāna.
vipākacitta : citta which is the result of a wholesome deed (kusala kamma) or an unwholesome deed (akusala kamma). It can arise as rebirth- consciousness, or during life as the experience of pleasant or unpleasant objects through the senses, such as seeing, hearing, etc.
vipassanā : wisdom which sees realities as they are.
vippayutta : dissociated from.
viriya : energy.
visaṇkāra dhamma : unconditioned dhamma, nibbāna.
Visuddhimagga : an Encyclopaedia of the Buddha’s teachings, written by Buddhaghosa in the fifth century A.D.
vitakka : applied thinking.
vīthi-cittas : cittas arising in a process.
vīthimutta-cittas : process freed cittas, cittas which do not arise within a process.
votthapana-citta : determining consciousness.
vyāpāda : ill-will.
Yamaka : the Book of Pairs, the sixth book of the Abhidhamma.
yoniso manasikāra : wise attention to the object.
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