abhaya dāna the giving of freedom from fear
abhāya freedom from fear or danger.
Abhidhamma the higher teachings of Buddhism, teachings on ultimate realities
Abhidhammattha Sangaha, an Encyclopedia of the Abhidhamma, written by Anuruddha between the 8th and the 12th century A.D.
abhiññā, supernormal powers.
abhisaṅkhāra kammic activity giving preponderance in the conditioning of rebirth
adhimāna over-estimating conceit
adhimokkha determination or resolution
adhipatis “forerunners” of the arising of the ariyan eightfold Path:
adosa non aversion
adukkhamasukha neutral feeling
ahetuka cittas not accompanied by “beautiful roots” or unwholesome roots
ahetuka kiriyacitta inoperative citta without root
ahetuka-diṭṭhi The view that here are no causes (in happening)
ājīva-duccarita virati abstinence from wrong livelihood
ākāsānañcāyatana, sphere of boundless space, the meditation subject of the first immaterial jhānacitta
akiriya-diṭṭhi The view that there is no such thing as kamma
akusala citta unwholesome consciousness
akusala kamma a bad deed
akusala unwholesome, unskilful
alobha non attachment, generosity
alobha, non attachment, generosity.
āmisa dāna the giving of material things
amoha wisdom or understanding
an-aññātaññassāmī ‘t’indriya I-shall-come-to-know-the-unknown” faculty, arising at the moment of the magga-citta of the sotāpanna
anāgāmī non returner, person who has reached the third stage of enlightenment, he has no aversion (dosa)
ānanda the chief attendant of the Buddha
anantarika kamma heinous crimes
anattā not self
aññasamānācetasikas Añña means “other” and samānā means “common”, the same. The aññasamānās which arise together are of the same jāti as the citta they accompany and they all change, become “other”, as they accompany a citta of a different jāti. Akusala is “other” than kusala and kusala is “other” than akusala.
aññātāvindriya The final knower faculty, arising at the moment of the phala-citta of the arahat
aññindriya The faculty of final knowledge , which arises at the moment of the phala-citta, fruition-consciousness, of the sotāpanna, and also accompanies the magga-citta and the phala-citta of the sakadāgāmī and of the anāgāmī and the magga-citta of the arahat
anudhamma in conformity with the Dhamma
anuloma conformity or adaptation.
anumodhanā thanksgiving, appreciation of someone else’s kusala
anupādisesa nibbāna, final nibbāna, without the khandhas (aggregates or groups of existence) remaining, at the death of an arahat.
anusayas latent tendency or proclivity
apo-dhātu element of water or cohesion.
arahat noble person who has attained the fourth and last stage of enlightenment
ārammaṇa object which is known by consciousness.
ariyan noble person who has attained enlightenment
arūpa-bhūmi plane of arūpa citta
arūpa-brahma plane plane of existence attained as a result of arūpa-jhāna. There are no sense impressions, no rūpa experienced in this realm.
arūpa-jhāna immaterial absorption
arūpāvacara citta arūpa jhāna citta, consciousness of immaterial jhāna
asaññā-satta plane plane where there is only rūpa, not nāma
asaṅkhārika unprompted, not induced, either by oneself or by someone else
asaṅkhata dhamma unconditioned reality, nibbāna
asappurisa a bad man
āsavas influxes or intoxicants, group of defilements
asobhana not beautiful, not accompanied by beautiful roots.
asura demon, being of one of the unhappy planes of existence
atīta-bhavanga past life-continuum, arising and falling away shortly before the start of a process of cittas experiencing an object through one of the sense-doors
attavādupādāna clinging to personality belief
Atthasālinī The Expositor, a commentary to the first book of the Abhidhamma Piṭaka
āvajjana, adverting of consciousness to the object which has impinged on one of the six doors.
avihiósa the thought of non-harming
avijjāsava the canker of ignorance
avijjogha the flood of ignorance
avyāpāda the thought of non-malevolence
ayoniso manasikāra unwise attention to an object
balas powers, strengths
bhaṅga khaṇa dissolution moment of citta
bhava-taṇhā craving for existence
bhāvanā mental development, comprising the development of calm and the development of insight
bhavanga calana vibrating bhavanga arising shortly before a process of cittas experiencing an object through one of the six doors
bhavangupaccheda arrest bhavanga, last bhavanga-citta before a process of cittas starts
bhavogha the flood of desire for rebirth
bhūmi existence or plane of citta
bodhisatta a being destined to become a Buddha
bojjhangas factors of enlightenment,</o:p>
Brahma heavenly being born in the Brahma world, as a result of the attainment of jhāna
brahma-vihāras the four divine abidings, meditation subjects which are: loving kindness, compassion, sympathetic joy, equanimity
brahmavihāra-upekkhā equanimity, one of the “divine abidings”
Buddha a fully enlightened person who has discovered the truth all by himself, without the aid of a teacher
Buddhaghosa the greatest of Commentators on the Tipiṭaka, author of the Visuddhimagga in 5 A.D
cakkhu-dhātu eye element
cakkhu-samphassa eye contact
cakkhuppasāda rūpa, rūpa which is the organ of eyesense, capable of receiving visible object.
chanda “wish to do”
citta consciousness the reality which knows or cognizes an object
citta-kammaññatā wieldiness of citta
citta-lahutā lightness of citta
citta-mudutā pliancy of citta
citta-pāguññatā proficiency of citta
citta-passaddhi tranquillity of mind
citta-ujukatā uprightness of citta
citta, consciousness, the reality which knows or cognizes an object.
dāna generosity, giving
dassana-kicca function of seeing.
deva heavenly being
dhamma reality, truth, the teachings
dhamma-dhātu, element of dhammas, realities, comprising cetasikas, subtle rūpas, nibbāna.
dhamma-vicaya investigation of Dhamma
Dhammanudhamma paṭipatti the practice of the Dhamma in conformity with the Dhamma (anudhamma)
dhammārammaṇa, all objects other than the sense objects which can be experienced through the five sense-doors, thus, objects which can be experienced only through the mind-door.
Dhammasangaṇi the first book of the Abhidhamma Piṭaka
dhammavicaya investigation of the Dhamma
Dhātukathā, Discussion on the Elements, the third book of the Abhidhamma.
diṭṭhāsava canker of wrong view
diṭṭhi wrong view, distorted view of realities
diṭṭhigata sampayutta accompanied by wrong view
diṭṭhigata-vippayutta attachment which is dissociated from wrong view
diṭṭhogha the flood of wrong view
diṭṭhupādāna clinging to wrong view
domanassa unpleasant feeling
dosa aversion or ill will
dosa-mūla-citta citta (consciousness) rooted in aversion
dukkha suffering, unsatisfactoriness of conditioned realities
dukkha vedanā painful feeling or unpleasant feeling
dvāra doorway through which an object is experienced, the five sense-doors or the mind door
dvi-pañca-viññāṇa the five pairs of sense-cognitions, which are seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting and body-consciousness. Of each pair one is kusala vipāka and one akusala vipāka
ekaggatā concentration, one-pointedness, a cetasika which has the function to focus on one object
ganthas bonds, a group of defilements
ghāna-dhātu, nose element.
ghānappasāda rūpa** rūpa which is the organ of smelling sense, capable of receiving odour.
Ghāyana-kicca function of smelling.
gotrabhū change of lineage, the last citta of the sense-sphere before jhāna, absorption, is attained, or enlightenment is attained
hadaya-vatthu heart-base, rūpa which is the plane of origin of the cittas other than the sense-cognitions.
hasituppāda-citta smile producing consciousness of an arahat
hetu root, which conditions citta to be “beautiful” or unwholesome
hiri moral shame
idaṃ-saccābhinivesa kāyagantha the bodily tie of dogmatism
idaṃ-saccābhinivesa the tie of dogmatism
iddhipādas four “Roads to Success”
indriya faculty. Some are rūpas such as the sense organs, some are nāmas such as feeling. Five ‘spiritual faculties’ are wholesome faculties which should be cultivated, namely: confidence, energy, awareness, concentration and wisdom.
jāti birth, nature, class (of cittas)
javana impulsion, running through the object
javana-citta cittas which ‘run through the object’, kusala citta or akusala citta in the case of non-arahats
jhāna absorption which can be attained through the development of calm
jhāna factors cetasikas which have to be cultivated for the attainment of jhāna: vitakka, vicāra, pīti, sukha, samādhi
jhāna-cittas absorption consciousness attained through the development of calm
jhāna, absorption which can be attained through the development of calm
jinhā-dhātu tongue element
jinhāppasāda rūpa rūpa which is the organ of tasting sense, capable of receiving flavour
jīvitindriya life-faculty or vitality
kalyāṇa-mitta good friend in Dhamma
kāma-bhūmi sensuous plane of existence
kāma-sobhana cittas beautiful cittas of the sense sphere
kāma-taṇhā sensuous craving
kāma-vitakka thought of sense-pleasures
kāma sensual enjoyment or the five sense objects.
kāmacchandha sensuous desire.
kāmāvacara cittas cittas of the sense sphere
kāmāvacara sobhana cittas beautiful cittas of the sense sphere
kamma intention or volition; deed motivated by volition
kamma patha course of action performed through body, speech or mind which can be wholesome or unwholesome
Kammassakatāñāṇa understanding of the specific nature of kamma as ‘one’s own’
kāmogha the flood of sensuous desire
kāmupādāna sensuous clinging
kasiṇa disk, used as an object for the development of calm
kāya body. It can also stand for the ‘mental body’, the cetasikas
kāya dhātu the element of bodysense
kāya-duccarita virati abstinence from wrong action
kāya-ujukatā uprightness of cetasika
kāya-viññatti bodily intimation, such as gestures, facial expression, etc.
kāyappasāda rūpa bodysense, the rūpa which is capable of receiving tangible object. It is all over the body, inside or outside
khandhas aggregates of conditioned realities classified as five groups: physical phenomena, feelings, perception or remembrance, activities or formations (cetasikas other than feeling or perception), consciousness.
kiriya citta inoperative citta, neither cause nor result
kukkucca regret or worry
kusala citta wholesome consciousness
kusala kamma a good deed
kusala wholesome, skilful
lakkhaṇaṃ characteristic, specific or generic attribute
lobha attachment, greed
lobha-mūla-citta consciousness rooted in attachment
lokiya citta citta which is mundane, not experiencing nibbāna
lokuttara citta supramundane citta which experiences nibbāna
lokuttara dhammas the unconditioned dhamma which is nibbāna and the cittas which experience nibbāna
magga path (eightfold Path)
magga-citta path consciousness, supramundane citta which experiences nibbāna and eradicates defilements.
mahākiriyacitta inoperative sense-sphere citta of the arahat, accompanied by “beautiful” roots.
mahāvipākacitta citta of the sense sphere which is result, accompanied by “beautiful” roots.
mahā-bhūta-rūpas, the rūpas which are the four great elements of “earth” or solidity, “water” or cohesion, “fire” or temperature, and “wind” or motion.
mahā-kusalacitta wholesome citta of the sense sphere
mahā-satipaṭṭhāna, four applications of mindfulness, see satipaṭṭhāna
mahā-vipassanā “principal insight”
mano-dhātu mind-element, comprising the five-sense-door adverting-consciousness, and the two types of receiving-consciousness
mano-dvāra-vīthi-cittas, cittas arising in a mind-door process.
mano-viññāna-dhātu mind-consciousness element, comprising all cittas other than the sense-cognitions (seeing, etc.) and mind-element
mano mind, citta, consciousness
māra “the evil one”—all that leads to dukkha
mettā loving kindness
micchā-diṭṭhi wrong view
micchā-samādhi wrong concentration
middha torpor or languor
moha-mūla-cittas cittas rooted in ignorance
muditā sympathetic joy
n’eva-saññā-n’āsaññāyatana, sphere of neither perception nor non-perception, the meditation subject of the fourth immaterial jhāna.
nāma kkhandha group of all mental phenomena
nāma mental phenomena,including those which are conditioned and also the unconditioned nāma which is nibbāna.
nāma mental phenomena,including those which are conditioned and also the unconditioned nāma which is nibbāna.
nāma-rūpa pariccheda-ñāṇa first stage of insight, insight knowledge of the distinction between mental phenomena and physical phenomena
natthika diṭṭhi wrong view of annihilation, assumption that there is no result of kamma
ñāṇa sampayutta accompanied by paññā; ñāṇa means paññā.
ñāṇa vippayutta unaccompanied by paññā
ñāṇa wisdom, insight
nekkhamma thought of renunciation
nibbāna unconditioned reality, the reality which does not arise and fall away. The destruction of lust, hatred and delusion. The deathless. The end of suffering
nimitta mental image one can acquire of a meditation subject in tranquil meditation
nirodha-samāpatti, attainment of cessation of consciousness.
nīvaraṇa hindrances, a group of defilements
oghas group of defilements, the floods
oḷārika rūpas gross rūpas (sense objects and sense organs)
ojā the rūpa which is nutrition
ottappa fear of blame
paccaya-pariggaha-ñāṇa discerning the Conditions of Nāma and Rūpa
Pacceka Buddha silent Buddha, an enlightened one who has found the truth by himself but does not proclaim Dhamma to the world
paccupaṭṭhāna manifestation, appearance or effect
padaṭṭhānaṃ proximate cause
paṭibhāganimitta counterpart image, more perfected mental image of a meditation subject, acquired in tranquil meditation
paṭicca sammuppada ‘Dependent Origination’, the conditional origination of phenomena
paṭigha, aversion or ill will.
Paṭṭhāna Conditional Relations, one of the seven books of the Abhidhamma
paṭisandhi citta rebirth consciousness
pakiṇṇakā the particulars
Pāli the language of the Buddhist teachings
pañcaviññāṇa (or dvi-pañcaviññāṇa), the sense cognitions (seeing etc.) of which there five pairs.
paññā, wisdom or understanding.
paññatti concepts, conventional terms
paramattha dhamma, truth in the absolute sense: mental and physical phenomena, each with their own characteristic.
Paramattha Mañjūsā a commentary to the Visuddhimagga
pāramīs the ten perfections, generosity, dāna, morality, sīla, renunciation, nekkhamma, wisdom, paññā, energy, viriya, patience, khanti, truthfulness, sacca, determination, adiṭṭhāna, loving-kindness, mettā, equanimity, upekkhā
parikamma preparatory consciousness, the first javanacitta arising in the process during which absorption or enlightenment is attained
pasāda-rūpas rūpas which are capable of receiving sense-objects such as visible object, sound, taste, etc.
phala-citta fruition consciousness experiencing nibbāna. It is result of magga-citta, path-consciosness.
phoṭṭhabbārammaṇa tangible object, experienced through bodysense
phusana kicca function of experiencing tangible object
pīti, joy, rapture, enthusiasm.
Puggalapaññatti, Designation of Human Types, the fourth book of the Abhidhamma.
puñña-kiriya-vatthus “ten bases of meritorious deeds”
puthujjana “worldling”, a person who has not attained enlightenment
Rāhula, the Buddha’s son.
rasa function or achievement
rasārammaṇa object of flavour
rūpa physical phenomena, realities which do not experience anything
rūpa-brahma plane or rūpa-bhūmi fine material realm of existence attained as a result of rūpa-jhāna
rūpa-jhāna fine material absorption, developed with a meditation subject which is still dependant on materiality
rūpa-jīvitindriya a kind of rūpa produced by kamma and it maintains the life of the other rūpas it arises together with rūpa-khandha aggregate or group of all physical phenomena (rūpas)
rūpa-khandha aggregate or group of all physical phenomena (rūpas)
rūpārammaṇa visible object
rūpāvacara citta type of jhāna citta
rūpāvacara cittas ūpa-jhānacittas, consciosness of the fine-material sphere
sa-upādi-sesa nibbāna arahatship with the khandhas remaining, thus not final nibbāna at death of an arahat
sabbacitta-sādhāranā the seven cetasikas which have to arise with every citta
sadda dāna the gift of sounds (should be understood by way of the sounds of drums, etc.)
sahagata accompanied by
sahetuka accompanied by roots
sakadāgāmī once-returner, a noble person who has attained the second stage of enlightenment
sakkāya diṭṭhi wrong view of personality, wrong view about the khandhas
samādhi concentration or one-pointedness, ekaggatā cetasika
samādhi concentration or one-pointedness, ekaggatā cetasika
samādhi-bhāvanā the development of concentration
samañña lakkhaṇa general characteristics common to all conditioned realities
samatha the development of calm
sambojjhanga seven factors of enlightenment
sammā-diṭṭhi right understanding
sammā-samādhi right concentration
sammā-sambuddha a universal Buddha, a fully enlightened person who has discovered the truth all by himself, without the aid of a teacher and who can proclaim the Truth to others beings
sammā-saṅkappa right thinking of the eightfold Path
sammā-sati right mindfulness
sammā-vāyāma right mindfulness of the eightfold Path
sampajañña discrimination, comprehension
sampayutta associated with
sampayutta dhammas associated dhammas, citta and cetasika which arise together
Sangha community of monks and nuns. As one of the triple Gems it means the community of those people who have attained enlightenment
sankhata or saṅkhāra dhamma conditioned dhamma
saññā memory, remembrance or “perception”
saññā-kkhandha memory classified as one of the five khandhas
saṅkāra dhamma conditioned dhamma
saṅkhāra-kkhandha, all cetasikas (mental factors) except feeling and memory.
saṅkhāradhamma conditioned realities
saósāra the cycle of birth and death
saóvega a sense of spiritual urgency
sappurisa good man
Sāriputta The First chief disciple of the Buddha
sasaṅkhārika prompted, induced, instigated, either by oneself or someone else
sati awareness, non-forgetfulness, awareness of reality by direct experience
satipaṭṭhāna applicatioms of mindfulness. It can mean the cetasika sati which is aware of realities or the objects of mindfulness which are classified as four applications of mindfulness: Body, Feeling Citta, Dhamma. Or it can mean the development of direct understanding of realities through awareness.
satipaṭṭhāna sutta Middle Length Sayings 1, number 10, also Dīgha Nikāya, dialogues 11, no. 22;
savana-kicca function of hearing
sāyana-kicca function of tasting
saṃyojanas The Fetters, a group of defilements
sīla morality in action or speech, virtue
sīlabbata-parāmāsā wrong practice
sīlabbatupādāna wrong practice, which is clinging to certain rules (“rites and rituals”) in one’s practice
sobhana (citta and cetasika) beautiful, accompanied by beautiful roots
sobhana hetus beautiful roots
sobhana kiriyacittas kiriyacittas accompanied by sobhana (beautiful) roots
sobhana kiriyacittas, kiriyacittas accompanied by sobhana (beautiful) roots
somanassa happy feeling
sota-dhātu element of earsense
sota-dvāra-vīthi-cittas ear-door process cittas
sotāpanna person who has attained the first stage of enlightenment, and who has eradicated wrong view of realities
sukha happy, pleasant
sukha-vedanā pleasant feeling
sutta part of the scriptures containing dialogues at different places on different occasions..
suttanta a sutta text
tadālambana retention or registering, last citta of a complete process of the sense-sphere
tadārammaṇa as above
taruṇa vipassanā “tender insight”
Tathāgata literally “thus gone”, epithet of the Buddha
tatramajjhattatā equanimity or evenmindedness
tejo-dhātu element of fire or heat
Theravāda Buddhism ‘Doctrine of the Elders’, the oldest tradition of Buddhism
tiṭṭhi khaṇa the moment of its presence, or static moment of citta
Tipiṭaka the teachings of the Buddha
titthi khaṇa static moment of citta
Udāna Verses of Uplift from the Minor Anthologies
uddhambhāgiya-saṃyojana five higher fetters which tie beings to the higher planes of existance the rūpa-brahma planes and the arūpa-brahma planes
ujupatipanno the straight, true and proper way
upacāra access or proximatory consciousness, the second javana-citta in the process in which absorption or enlightenment is attained
upādā-rūpa, “derived rūpas” the rūpas other than the four Great Elements.
upādānakkhandhas khandhas of clinging
upanissaya-paccaya decisive support-condition
upekkhā indifferent feeling. It can stand for evenmindedness or equanimity and then it is not feeling
Uposatha Uposatha days are days of fasting or vigil; uposatha is observed on the days of full-moon and new-moon, and sometimes also on the days of the first and last moon-quarter. In Buddhist countries there is a tradition for lay-followers to visit temples and to observe eight precepts on these days
uppāda khaṇa the arising moment of citta
vaci-duccarita virati abstinence from wrong speech
vacīviññatti the rūpa which is speech intimation
vāsanā disagreeable habits accumulated in the past that can only be eradicated by a Buddha. Even arahats who have eradicated all defilements may still have a way of speech or action that is not agreeable to others
vatthu base, physical base of citta
vāyo-dhātu element of wind or motion
vedanā-kkhandha group of all feelings
Vibhaṅga “Book of Analysis”, one of the seven books of the Abhidhamma
vibhava-taṇhā craving for non-existence
vicāra sustained thinking or discursive thinking
vihiósā-vitakka thought of harming
vinaya Book of Discipline for the monks
viññāṇa consciousness, citta
viññāṇa-dhātu, element of consciousness, comprising all cittas.
viññāṇa-kkhandha all cittas (consciousness)
viññāṇañcāyatana sphere of boundless consciousness, meditation subject for the second stage of immaterial jhāna
vipākacitta, citta which is the result of a wholesome deed (kusala kamma) or an unwholesome deed (akusala kamma). It can arise as rebirth-consciousness, or during life as the experience of pleasant or unpleasant objects through the senses, such as seeing, hearing, etc.
vipallāsas perversions. Three kinds: saññā perversion of perception, citta of thought, diṭṭhi of views
vipassanāñāṇa moment of insight knowledge
vipassanā wisdom which sees realities as they are
vippayutta dissociated from
visaṇkāra dhamma unconditioned dhamma (reality)
Visuddhimagga an encyclopaedia of the Buddha’s teaching, written by Buddhaghosa in the fifth century A.D
vitakka applied thinking
vīthi-cittas cittas arising in a process
vīthimutta-cittas process freed cittas, cittas which do not arise within a process
votthapana-citta determining consciousness.
vyāpāda-vitakka thought of malevolence
Yamaka the Book of Pairs, the sixth book of the Abhidhamma
yoghas The yokes, a group of defilements